Environmental Engineering For Sewer Discharges Of Industrial Wastewater

Introduction 

This paper is one in a continuing series concerning environmental engineering, which is one of the services provided by our environmental consulting firm, Environmental Safety Consultants, Inc. (ESC). It is critical to make sure that your facility’s sewer discharges of industrial wastewater is acceptable to the entity operating the receiving wastewater treatment (sewer) plant. 

It is important that an environmental engineer evaluate the discharge, hopefully, before it begins. The discharge must be acceptable or pre-treated to be acceptable to the plant. This is required under the federal Clean Water Act mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, www.epa.gov) and quite often is implemented via a local Sewer Use Ordinance, usually at the county level. 

Why Worry? 

The attitude may be, “Well, we are paying for the sewer discharge, so what does it matter?” Actually, it matters a whole lot. The discharge may knock out the microbiological organisms at the wastewater treatment plant so that it can no longer treat sanitary sewer water which it was designed to treat. It could cause an explosion, or it could pollute the surface water receiving the plant’s discharge. Alternatively, it could pollute the aquifer if the plant is discharging the effluent to groundwater (underground injection). The list goes on and on. But, one of the most compelling reasons is that you could be in violation of the Sewer Use Ordinance and subject to huge fines! 

How Will They Know? 

The Sewer Authority can do sewer discharge tracing. They have access to lift stations and through inspection and testing, plus evaluating the facilities in the neighborhood, they can trace the discharge to your facility fairly easily. It is not that difficult. Believe me, we have seen it happen to more than one industrial facility. 

What’s a Facility to Do? 

First, read the Sewer Use Ordinance closely. It typically lists substances or certain properties of substances which are not allowed to be discharged. So if your effluent has any of those substances, you are dead in the water, right? Not necessarily so. Working in concert with your representatives, ESC’s environmental engineer may be able to come up with one or two of the following solutions: 

  • Change the process generating the contaminant(s) 
  • Chemical substitution – generating acceptable wastewater 
  • Segregate the components and properly dispose of any hazardous wastes prior to discharge 
  • Treat the wastewater before discharge – options include flocculation, primary & secondary settling, aeration, & filtration 
  • Discuss alternatives with the Sewer Authority 

In evaluating your wastewater and the treatment options the environmental engineer may very well need to conduct sampling and analysis of your wastewater before discharge; after treatment on a bench scale basis; after full implementation of treatment; and on a periodic basis depending on the Sewer Authority’s requirements and to monitor your treatment process. 

Environmental Safety ConsultantsSo there is a discussion of the environmental engineering related to sewer discharges of industrial wastewater! If you need any assistance, ESC (www.escflorida.com) is here. We are a Florida licensed environmental consulting and Florida licensed environmental engineering firm with a P.E. on staff. We have the credentials and experience to help you with your industrial wastewater sewer discharge needs. We are just a telephone call (800-226-1735) or an e-mail away (escinc@verizon.net). Contact us today!

Environmental Engineering for NPDES Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP)

Background 

So far, we have provided several papers on or related to environmental engineering, which is provided stormwater pollution by environmental consulting firms like ours, Environmental Safety Consultants, Inc. (ESC). We provided information on environmental permits, then went into an overview of environmental engineering. Next, we addressed industrial wastewater and, finally, air emissions control provided by an air engineer. There was also a paper discussing Florida NPDES (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System) Industrial Stormwater requirements. Now we will discuss the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP).

Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP)

The current paper will discuss environmental engineering required for an SWPPP (Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan). The regulatory requirements are provided by both the U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency, www.epa.gov) and the FDEP (Florida Department of Environmental Protection, www.floridadep.gov). The requirements discussed herein primarily cover manufacturing and industrial facilities with SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) Codes 21 – 39 with specific exposure to stormwater. 

Objective 

The objective of the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan is self-evident from its name. That is, the SWPPP is prepared by an environmental engineer to prevent pollution of stormwater so it does not discharge and impact receiving waters. Why? Because if it does, it can impair the biological organisms and public health. 

Components of Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan

In preparing the SWPPP, the environmental engineer first identifies the facility and describes its operations, location, and receiving surface waters. Then, information and data are gathered in the following areas to assess the facility’s impact to stormwater: 

  • Topography, runoff, & discharge point(s) 
  • Material inventory, quantities, & exposure 
  • Significant spills or leaks last three years 
  • Non-stormwater discharges
  • Pollutant sources & specific parameters 
  • Best Management Practices (BMPs) to control pollutants 

Based on the results of the preceding, the environmental engineer discusses the findings with the client, then prepares the SWPPP and submits it for review. It is important that the client be able to implement and use the plan to reduce or eliminate pollutants in the facility’s stormwater runoff. 

Implementation 

The client’s management must endorse the SWPPP and sign it as documentation. A Pollution Prevention Team is formed and identified in the SWPPP. Team members and other personnel receive training. Resources are committed to attain the plan’s objective by implementing the BMPs selected. Visual monitoring of the stormwater discharge is required quarterly and laboratory analysis may be required during the second and fourth years of the five year permit. All records are kept in the SWPPP and, thus, it is a living document. 

Environmental Safety ConsultantsSo there is a discussion of the preparation of an SWPPP by an environmental engineer! If you need any assistance, Environmental Safety Consultants (www.escflorida.com) is here. We are a Florida licensed environmental consulting and Florida licensed environmental engineering firm with a P.E. on staff. We have the credentials and experience to help you with your SWPPP. We are just a telephone call (800- 226-1735) or an e-mail away (escinc@verizon.net). Contact us today!

Environmental Engineering for Air Emissions

Background 

In three previous papers we dealt with an overview of environmental engineering, industrial wastewater permits, and industrial wastewater environmental engineering. In this paper, we will discuss environmental engineering required to address air emissions to the outside environment. Environmental engineering for air emissionsThese emissions result from manufacturing and industrial operations. They may be from a point source such as a smoke stack or from a non-point source and are called fugitive emissions. The latter result from processes typically inside a building or in an outside designated area. Environmental engineering is required to determine the best reasonably achievable control technology to minimize the emissions to the environment outside of the facility. The environmental air engineer must be involved in the design, testing, and adjusting the controls. Applications for Title V Air permits and Federally Enforceable State Operating Permits (FESOPs) must be signed and sealed by a Florida licensed Professional Engineer (P.E.). A P.E. in Florida is only allowed to practice in areas that he or she has the required education, training, and experience. Thus, the P.E. must be an environmental engineer with air emissions knowledge and experience and is quite often called the Air Engineer and is usually with an Environmental Consulting firm such as ours, Environmental Safety Consultants, Inc. 

Start with the Pollutants 

To engineer the air emissions controls, you have to know the process generating the emissions. The environmental engineer must review the raw materials, the industrial or manufacturing process, the resultant air emissions, and the control options. Following are a few pollutants which may be of concern: 

  • Particulate Matter (physical particles or dust) 
  • Nitrogen Oxides 
  • Sulfur Dioxide 
  • Carbon Monoxide 
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) 
  • Ozone 
  • Lead 

All of these except VOCs are criteria air pollutants established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, https://www.epa.gov/criteria-air-pollutants).  Each type of pollutant may require a different environmental engineering design to remove or reduce it before being emitted to the outside environment.

Clean It Up 

The goal is to clean up the air so the pollutants are eliminated or below State standards prior to emission. These standards are thresholds for public health concerns. If the pollutants are below these criteria, there is not a public health concern, but there still may be a concern for unborn babies (pregnant women), children, the elderly, and individuals with certain lung conditions, such as emphysema, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), etcetera. 

Control Design 

The control design is selected to address the pollutants. Following are a few examples: 

  • Alternative raw materials 
  • Industrial process modifications 
  • Filters (cloth, baghouses) 
  • Cyclones (gravitational) 
  • Air scrubbers 
  • Precipitators (electrostatic) 
  • Equipment maintenance and cleaning 

Role of the Environmental Air Engineer

First, the environmental engineer reviews the industrial process, including materials and chemicals, generating the air emissions. The engineer then evaluates several control design options and runs calculations to determine which one will work best and will be cost-effective. He or she then prepares the air permit application; submits it to FDEP and, if required, to the County; provides additional information requested by the FDEP and County; reviews the permit making sure that it meets good engineering practice and is manageable for the client; and, if requested, monitors the treatment process in light of the permit conditions. 

Environmental Safety ConsultantsSo there is a discussion of air emissions environmental engineering and what the environmental engineer’s role is! If you need any assistance, Environmental Safety Consultants (www.escflorida.com) is here. We are a Florida licensed environmental engineering company with a P.E. on staff. We have the credentials and experience to help you with your industrial wastewater needs. We are just a telephone call (800-226-1735) or an e-mail away (escinc@verizon.net). Contact us today!

Environmental Engineering For Industrial Wastewater

Background

In two previous papers we dealt with an overview of environmental engineering and industrial wastewater permits. In this paper, we will discuss environmental engineering required to address ESC - Environmental Engineering for Industrial Waste Waterindustrial wastewater. This is the engineering required to treat the wastewater so it does not pollute the receiving surface water, or so it is within tolerable limits and virtually has no impact. Environmental engineering is required to determine the best reasonably achievable control technology to do so. The environmental engineer must be involved in the design, testing, and adjusting the treatment process. Florida NPDES Industrial Wastewater permit applications must be signed and sealed by a Florida licensed Professional Engineer (P.E.). A P.E. in Florida is only allowed to practice in areas that he or she has the required education, training, and experience. Thus, the P.E. must be an environmental engineer with industrial wastewater knowledge and experience.

Start with the Pollutants

To engineer the treatment, you have to know the waste stream. The environmental engineer must become familiar with the industrial materials and processes generating the wastewater. Following are a few pollutants which may be of concern:

  • Heat (thermal)
  • Nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen)
  • Biochemical Oxygen Demand (e.g., organic matter)
  • Heavy Metals
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
  • Radioactivity
  • Particulates resulting in Turbidity

Each type of pollutant may require a different environmental engineering design to remove or reduce it in the wastewater before discharge.

Clean It Up

The goal is to clean up the wastewater so the pollution is below State standards prior to discharge. Mixing zones can be approved where the concentration is above the standard at the point of discharge but is allowed to mix with the receiving water and must be below the State standards so many feet downstream. Approval of such mixing zones by the FDEP (Florida Department of Environmental Protection, www.floridadep.gov) is possible, but not likely. There has to be a very good reason why the State standard cannot be met at the point of discharge.

Treatment Design

The treatment design is selected to address the pollutants. Following are a few examples:

  • Cooling of heated (thermal) effluent
  • Primary and secondary settling of particulates in pond or tank
  • Aeration to encourage biota to degrade organic matter
  • Chemical additives to oxidize or coagulate select pollutants
  • Percolation to allow filtration in soil column
  • Filtration with various types of filters

Role of the Environmental Engineer

First, the environmental engineer reviews the industrial process, including materials and chemicals, generating the industrial wastewater. The engineer then evaluates several treatment design options and runs calculations to determine which one will work best and will be cost-effective. He or she then prepares the permit application; submits it to FDEP and, if required, to the County; provides additional information requested by the FDEP and County; reviews the permit making sure that it meets good engineering practice; and, if requested, monitors the treatment process in light of the permit conditions.

So there is a discussion of industrial wastewater environmental engineering and what the environmental engineer’s role is! If you need any assistance, Environmental Safety Consultants
(www.escflorida.com) is here. We are a Florida licensed environmental engineering company with a P.E. on staff. We have the credentials and experience to help you with your industrial wastewater needs.

We are just a telephone call (800-226-1735) or an e-mail away (escinc@verizon.net). Contact us today!